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C1 – Word of the Year 2023

This article-based ESL lesson delves into the selection of “hallucinate” as the 2023 Word of the Year by the Cambridge Dictionary, emphasizing its novel association with artificial intelligence, particularly ChatGPT, and the generation of misleading information. Designed for C1 level students of all ages, the lesson incorporates vocabulary building, discussions on reflections of 2023, vocabulary exercises, online research, collaborative article reading, and an engaging word game.

TypeLevelVocabularyReading timeLesson Time
Regular LessonC1 / Advanced7 words3 min / 394 words60 min
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Teaching guide

For further guidance on activities and a more detailed breakdown of the words, please see the Keys file.


  • Mimic
  • Authoritative
  • Anthropomorphize
  • Curb
  • High watermark of worries
  • Notorious
  • Fictitious


  • Lead-in 1
  • Lead-in 2
  • Vocabulary match
  • Article reading
  • Vocabulary practice
  • Comments
  • Speaking
  • Word game